Some historical settlements with characteristics were found in the Xijiang River basin by an analysis of literatures, maps, fields and aerial photographies. Based on deep analysis of its forms, origins, site selection, defense measures, the similarity of labyrinthine cultural pattern settlements in the Xijiang River basin was obtained. The village construction of the settlements had a similar history and the concepts of sites were similar, and the military defense principles were also used to guide the settlement construction, which ensured the development of settlements complete and sustainable. The labyrinth patterns were divided by three types:vertical and horizontal, radial and disordered labyrinths. By an analysis of the relation between the cultural patterns of settlement labyrinths and settlement defense, it was found that both of them had the characteristics of boundary enclosing, intensive texture and complicated road systems, and the relation of isomorphism and coupling was between settlement patterns and defense forms. The planning and construction of labyrinthine pattern settlements had the typical defensive purposes, and the labyrinth patterns and various defense principles were used to ensure the security of settlements. The surface of the labyrinthine pattern settlements in the Xijiang River basin was the convergence of settlement forms to the labyrinthine culture patterns, and its essence was the exploration of the optimal mode of defense and survival for settlements, and the responses to the optimal survival mode of settlements at the level of settlement patterns.